QR code system is one of the image-based augmented reality methods. The QR code application, which is seen as an easy access method for mobile communication, was first invented in 1994 by a Japanese firm called Denso Wave. When QR codes consisting of black dots and lines are read by the camera of a mobile device, direct access to the digital information source on the internet or stored on a server can be provided. With this application, additional information can be accessed not only in magazines, books, newspapers, but also on any fixed surface. With the QR code application, which has become increasingly popular in recent years, it is possible to access digital content such as video, web page, audio, text, and application.
QR Code (Quick Response Code) is a new generation two-dimensional barcode type. QR code content can be any data including a text, website address, video link. By means of a QR Code reader software, a mobile phone can easily read the QR Code and open the relevant product or service page.
QR Code usually consists of black colored patterns on a white background in the form of a square. Although a QR Code can be much smaller than traditional barcodes, it can store much more data.
QR Code is unlimited. Unlimited information, messages, videos, and all kinds of content can be transferred in limited areas with QR code. You can access all kinds of details about the product, from the promotional video of the product to the user's manual, in a magazine advertisement, on a billboard, in the store or on TV, just by reading it. QR Code arouses curiosity.
One wonders what is in that QR code, in accordance with the natural human structure. It becomes an indispensable element for guerrilla-style advertising campaigns. With the right editing, it is possible to increase the level of curiosity and increase the feedback.
The usage areas of QR codes, which are a type of augmented reality applications as a new media experience, are quite diverse. Their use in printing technology and photography, advertisements, marketing and educational activities is becoming widespread. Because with the QR code, the reader can get more information more effectively. Despite the rapid spread of new media experiences among users, the reasons for the continued existence of printed media such as books, magazines and newspapers have been revealed by researches.
O'Hara and Selen (1997) stated in their research that there are 3 reasons for preferring the experience of reading on paper to reading online: (1) being able to take notes and writing short explanations, (2) Navigation Support, (3) Flexibility in Spatial Editing on paper. The ability to take notes and write short explanations allows the reader to underline and summarize the text. Navigation support, on the other hand, allows the reader, who is looking for a certain information in the text, to cross-scan on the physical surface of the paper. Spatial arrangement flexibility, on the other hand, describes the ease of perceiving the entire content of the printed material during reading or quick browsing.
The reasons expressed are of course possible actions for magazines, books and newspapers in digital environments. However, physically owning, touching and seeing the printed material can be seen as an important element for the reader. The findings obtained in a study on the comparison of reading actions in digital environments and reading actions in printed materials are that readers find texts in digital media less interesting, less understandable and less reliable. In addition, research findings show that people prefer to read in printed format (89.4%) instead of reading on screen (2.7%). According to the results of a study conducted by O'Hara and Selen (1997), it is one of the findings that reading on the screen is slower than reading on paper. Interaction in accessing information, non-linearity, instantaneous features and supporting texts with images, sounds and videos are expressed as the advantages of digital text reading on the screen. The use of QR codes is gradually becoming widespread in educational materials.
QR code applications are defined as technology that makes reading, working and learning from the printed educational material more effective and that can support the limited content on the printed surface with different elements such as additional information, video, sound, animation. In a printed teaching material supported by QR Code, it is emphasized that the student who has virtual access to the digital resource performs a more learner-centered, effective and purposeful action. Because the main character of the act of reading is the reader. Comprehension takes on a more ideal structure with the interaction between the reader and the reading text, and the reading process is carried out in line with the wishes of the reader.
There are many advantages provided by the use of QR codes. Content stored on a web page or server can be easily updated. With this feature, the reader can have access to instantly updated additional information. The flexible updating function of QR codes is seen as a very important feature for printed materials such as books and magazines. Another convenience is that the reader does not have to search for hours on the internet or in books to access the additional information they need. The reader can directly redirect to the page or server with additional information. The reader does not have to type long web addresses to access information.
Other advantages of the QR code application can be summarized as follows: It can be used not only in printed media, but also on any fixed surface; information access is provided by mobile device support; video, audio, application, additional information in the form of text can be directed. Directing readers to interactive environments also eliminates the limitation of compressing information on the paper surface. In this application, which is independent of time and space, the type of additional information content can be indicated in symbols and / or in writing. In this way, preliminary information can be given to the reader about the nature of the information to be accessed.
In general, it can be said that the use of interactive media redirects has increased. It is seen that the QR code application, which makes it possible to direct to the interactive environment without leaving the physical surface, is increasingly offered to the readers. It is one of the findings obtained as a result of the analysis that the use of the QR code application in the examined journals has been on a serious rise since the first quarter of 2012.
It is possible to see the upward trend as a tendency for the QR code application to be used more on fixed surfaces in the coming days. As it is known, surfaces that can contain limited information in a limited physical structure sometimes cannot adequately meet the needs of the target audience. Especially in today's world where we live in a network society, in an age where information access can be considered very fast and unlimited, being content with limited information and lack of interaction will not satisfy the individuals exposed to the message. Directing the readers to the digital media without leaving the physical surface with the QR code application can be seen as a great opportunity not only for magazines but also for all fixed surfaces. The reader can access the visual or audio recording of a news story directly from the news surface, obtain additional information and share their comments on the image they watch. This is a great opportunity for the reader to access the additional information they need.
It is assumed that the reader's awareness of the QR code application is high in the age of digital media where there is a very fast flow of information.